Hacha (axe) of a Human Face wearing an Animal Helmet
Unknown artist, Veracruz region, Gulf Coast, Mexico. Hacha (axe) of a Human Face wearing an Animal Helmet, 800–900 CE. Volcanic stone and red pigment, 7 ½ x 5 ⅜ x ¾ inches. Denver Art Museum Collection: Gift of Joyce and Ted Strauss, 1985.395.
Hacha of a Human Face wearing an Animal Helmet
About A.D. 800-900
Volcanic stone and red pigment
Gift of Joyce and Ted Strauss, 1985.395
Translating as "axe" in Spanish, the term "hacha" is a misnomer. This term was originally coined because of the form of these objects, which are relatively flat and taper down to a narrow edge. Although it is clear that these objects never functioned as axes, their true function remains enigmatic. Scholars have suggested that stone hachas were once attached to stone yokes (eg. 1991.500), but how this might have been accomplished remains unclear, as stone yokes lack the notches that would be required to mount an hacha. It is possible that stone versions of hachas (as well as stone yokes and palmas) may be ceremonial versions or effigy sculptures of the lighter weight paraphernalia (made of perishable materials) that was actually used in the game. Hachas may also have served as the heads of ceremonial scepters or, hafted onto wooden poles, may have acted as the ballgame equivalent of battle standards, rather than being worn by ballplayers during play.
Yokes, hachas, and palmas (eg. 1953.106) appear to have originated in Southern Veracruz, where they were carved with tremendous skill over the course of centuries. This example demonstrates a full mastery over stone as a sculptural medium. It is carved, as all hachas are, on both sides. Although the face is simply rendered, subtle indications of volume (look, for instance, at the eye and brow) give it an expressive quality. He almost appears to smile. While this face has been left in the dark-gray color of the natural stone, his helmet has been rubbed with a dark red pigment (possibly hematite) to create lively contrast. The helmet represents the highly abstracted face of an unidentifiable animal (what scholars usually call a "zoomorph"). The eye is formed by a round perforation, while the mouth, curving below the individual's chin, provides the helmet's chinstrap. The scrolling way in which this helmet is shown identifies this object as having been carved in Veracruz. The notch and forward-sloping angle of the back edge are also common features of Veracruz hachas.
For more on the ballgame, see 1971.417 and 1984.616. For similar hachas from Southern Mesoamerica, see 1971.413 and 1982.189.
-Lucia R. Henderson, 2016
- "The 150th Year, Pre-Columbian Ballgame of Ancient America"-- Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde, Leiden, 6/18/1988- 9/12/1988.
- "The Sport of Life and Death: The Mesoamerican Ballgame"-- Mint Museum of Art, 9/22/2001-1/6/2002
- Joslyn Art Museum, 6/8/2002
- New Orleans Museum of Art, 2/16/2002-4/28/2002
- The Newark Museum, 10/1/2002-12/29/2002.
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