Tosiwang, Ninth King of Hell
late 13th century - mid 14th century
ink and color on silk
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. John B. Bunker
. Tosiwang, Ninth King of Hell. late 13th century - mid 14th century. ink and color on silk. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. John B. Bunker. 1982.104.
Dimensionsmount height: 61 in, 154.94 cm; mount width: 22 7/8 in, 58.1025 cm; image height: 24 3/8 in, 61.9125 cm; image width: 17 3/4 in, 45.085 cm; overall width: 24 5/8 in, 62.5475 cm
Tosiwang, Ninth King of Hell Korea 1300s, Goryeo period Ink and color on silk Gift of Mr. and Mrs. John B. Bunker 1982.104 This painting shows the Ninth King of Hell, Tosiwang or "King of the Capital," presiding over the gruesome torturing of a sinner. It was one in a set of the Ten Kings of Hell now dispersed in museums and private collections. Such frightening representations of the Ten Kings of Hell would have been prominently displayed in temples to remind the Buddhist devoid of the horrors of hell and the unrelenting punishment of sinners. This cult of the underworld developed in China during the Five Dynasties (907-960), a time of great destruction and suffering, and was introduced over the following four centuries to both Korea and Japan.
Known ProvenancePublished in April 1961,"Ten Kings Paintings" by Keizaburo Mizuno, Kokka , Issue 70.4, no. 829, unknown collection. N.d., Harry Packard Collection [b. 1914, d. 1991] . N.d., John W. Dwyer III [b. 1924, d. 2005], San Francisco; at least 1982, Mr. and Mrs. John B. Bunker, Denver CO, purchased from John Dwyer; 1982, DAM collection, gift of Mr. and Mrs. Bunker.  published in "The Ten Kings from the former Packard Collection: a Reassessment," by Cheeyun Kwon. Oriental Art 2005, Vol. LV No. 2. p. 30.