Virgin of the Apocalypse

Virgin of the Apocalypse

18th century
Quito, Ecuador
Oil paint on canvas
Gift of Dr. & Mrs. Seymour Rubenfeld
Unknown. Virgin of the Apocalypse. 18th century. Oil paint on canvas. Gift of Dr. & Mrs. Seymour Rubenfeld. 1978.180.
This object is currently on view
height: 38.25 in, 97.1550 cm; width: 29.25 in, 74.2950 cm
The seven shields contain the following painted inscriptions: "Undique firma" "Unica viva" "Pura triumphat" "Non timet istos" "Tres necat una" "Despicit hostes" "Proxima primae" The scroll at the bottom reads: "Hic furor, haec rabies, hoc fel quid den"
Mayer Center, Latin American Art
Latin American Art

In this painting the Virgin Mary is depicted as the Woman of the Apocalypse, an image type derived from the Book of Revelation described as "a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars" (12:1). Bathed in the rays of a golden light, the Virgin stands atop a crescent moon, while below her angels in Heaven wage a war against evil. At lower right, the Archangel Saint Michael holds aloft an arrow-tipped cross, ready to strike a lethal blow against the Devil, portrayed here in the guise of a "great red dragon with seven heads," an image also derived from the Book of Revelation (12:3).

Although the artist is unknown, the painting was made in the 1700s, probably in the South American city of Quito, the capital of present-day Ecuador. Its composition is based on several engravings from the book, Conceptvs Chronographicvs De Concepta Sacra Deipara, a compilation of emblems and chronograms concerning the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary. Written by Joseph Zoller, a member of the Benedictine Order, the book was published in two editions in Augsburg, Germany in 1712 and 1720. The overall composition of the painting is closely modeled after the book’s frontispiece, an engraving by Philipp Jakob Leidenhoffer (d. 1714). However, the painter creatively reinterpreted his or her source: in the engraving the angels’ shields contain only text; in the painting the artist elected to replace the text with pictorial emblems from multiple engravings throughout Zoller’s book.

--Sabena Kull, 2017-18 Mayer Fellow for Spanish Colonial Art

Known Provenance
Provenance research is on-going at the Denver Art Museum. Please e-mail, if you have questions, or if you have additional information to share with us.

Some images in our online collection are at thumbnail size, in accordance with AAMD guidelines, because they are protected by copyright. The Denver Art Museum respects the rights of artists or their representatives who retain the copyright to their work. Other images represent the best photography available and should be used as reference images only. Please complete the Image Rights Request form if you want to request a high resolution image.